Crop Profile for Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in Tennessee

Prepared: January, 2005

 

General Production Information

 

Cultural Practices

Cotton production has changed over the past few years in Tennessee.  Producers are using varieties that have glyphosate resistant and Bt genes incorporated into them.  Seeds having these characteristics allow greater control of weeds as well as lessening the need for foliar applications of insecticides. 

Methods of Production and Costs:

There are several methods of cotton production from which producers can choose in Tennessee.  These include using conventional or no-tillage systems as well as using seed free of genetic modifications or using seed with incorporated glyphosate (Roundup Ready) resistance.  Other seed selections made by producers may include varieties with stacked genes.  Generally, these are varieties, which have both Roundup resistance and the Bt gene.  The Bt varieties, which have a protein present, is toxic to only a few pest species.  Varieties that do not have this protein present, often require more pesticide applications if specific lepidopterous pests are present.  Listed below are several production methods, however, cost of most pesticide inputs are not listed in the cost of production of an acre of upland cotton.

Roundup Ready - Conventional Tillage:

BtRR - Conventional Tillage:

Roundup Ready – No Tillage:

BtRR – No Tillage:

Planting and Harvest:

Varieties:

During 2004, Tennessee producers planted cotton varieties, which consisted of approximately 98.86% acreage with Roundup Ready cotton varieties.  Most of these varieties did include the Bt gene (approximately 93%).  Approximately 0.42% cotton acreage was planted in Liberty Link varieties.  Approximately 90% of the cotton was planted in Bollgard and 3% was in Bollgard II.

  • It is recommended that the final plant population be in the range of 41,000 to 54,000 plants per acre. This is approximately 3-4 living plants per foot of row in a 38-40 inch row.  To obtain this, it is recommended that the warm germination and cool germination be used to determine the number of seed to drop per foot of drill.

  • Planters are calibrated to deliver a specified number of seed per foot of row and "NOT" a specified number of pounds of seed per acre. This number should be based on germination and desired plant populations.

    Information available concerning 10 top yielding varieties that were available for 2004 are listed in Table 1.

    Table 1. Top 10 Yielding Varieties in Two Years of Testing.

    Variety

    Yield Rank

    Lint Yield

    Total lb/Acre

    Stoneville ST 4892 BR

    1

    1261

    Paymast PM 1218 BG/RR

    2

    1255

    FiberMax FM 966

    3

    1253

    PhytoGen PSC 355

    4

    1239

    Stoneville 474

    5

    1218

    Stoneville BXN 49B

    6

    1193

    Stoneville ST 4793 R

    7

    1178

    Sure-Grow SG 501 B/R

    8

    1152

    Deltapine DP451 B/RR

    9

    1151

    Sure-Grow SG 215 B/R

    10

    1130

    Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station data of Gwathmey, et al. (2001-2002)

     

    Worker Activities

    Field preparation:

    Planting:

    Scouting:

    After planting - pesticide applications:

    Defoliation:


    Harvest:

     

    Insect Pests

    Various insects are commonly found in Tennessee cotton production.  Timing and frequency of the pesticide application is critical in controlling many of the pests found invading cotton.  Knowledge of the stage of plant development is key in determining when to look for pests, which may be present and aids in determining if their populations warrant control measures.  From emergence to the fifth true leaf stage, producers should be looking for thrips, cutworms and occasionally aphids may develop into serious problems.  From the fifth true leaf to first square, aphids, plantbugs and spidermites may be observed occasionally.  From first square to first bloom, plant bugs and bollworms are the major pests observed, however, aphids, spider mites and tobacco budworm may become an occasional invader.  After first bloom, producers should be looking for bollworms, budworms, stinkbugs, and they may occasionally notice aphids, tarnished plant bug, loopers, fall and beet armyworms, spider mites, clouded plant bug, whiteflies, and European corn borer.   Table 2 lists several products labeled for control.   Table 3 lists the estimated percent cotton acreage treated with various products.  Table 4 lists the estimated efficacy of some commonly available insecticides.

    Thrips

    (Frankliniella spp.)

    Thrips belong to the order Thysanoptera.  Various types feed on cotton; however, Frankliniella species are predominant.  Both immature and adult stages have modified, piercing-sucking mouthparts and feed on plant juices from the wounds they make by their beak.  They overwinter as larvae or adults and may have multiple generations each year.  Thrips are consistently among the top 3rd to 4th economically most important pest of cotton grown in Tennessee.  Thrips damage cotton during the seedling stage and young plants are the most susceptible to their damage.  Heavily infested plants have distorted leaves and newly emerging may have a ragged appearance.  The terminal of the plant may be killed resulting in a loss of apical dominance and seedlings may die if heavy infestations persist. 

    Chemcials commonly used for control:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

    Carbamate insecticides:

    Non-Organophosphate, non-carbamate, non-pyrethroid insecticides:

    Possible chemical alternatives:

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

    Plant bugs

    (Lygus and others)

    Tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) is one of the pests placed into the plant bug category.  Others plant bugs include the clouded plant bug, and the cotton fleahopper.  These pests have piercing and sucking mouthparts.  The tarnished plant bug has a very wide host range including various cultivated and wild plant hosts.  Adults become active in the early spring and females are capable of laying from 50 to 150 egss.  Eggs hatch within 7-12 days and it takes approximately 15-25 days for nymphs to develop into adults.  Reproduction usually begins when adults are approximately one week old.  Multiple generations occur each year.  This pest is a mid-season problem and has become more of a pest with the reduction in pesticide applications due to the boll weevil eradication program.  The adults generally feed on developing squares therefore causing infested squares to be shed from the plant and causing yield loss.  Cotton bolls more than 14-days old, are typically not preferred feeding sites and are relatively immune to injury.  Tarnished plant bugs cause more injury when they feed on cotton at or near the pinhead square stage. Anything that hampers the development of cotton and extends this stage brings it more in line with normal plant bug migration to cotton, thereby increasing the potential for damage.

    Chemical controls currently used:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

  • Acephate (Orthene 90S): slightly toxic, systemic activity. Low rates are inexpensive.  Has systemic activity.
  • Chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4): moderately toxic.  Low rates are inexpensive.
  • Dicrotophos (Bidrin 8): highly toxic, has contact and systemic activity.  Low rates are inexpensive.
  • Malathion (Malathion 5, 8): moderately toxic, low rates are inexpensive, and multiple applications may be needed.
  • Carbamate insecticides:

  • Oxamyl (Vydate C-LV 3.77):  Highly toxic. Has systemic activity.  Cost can be inexpensive to high, depending on rate used.
  • Non-organophosphate insecticides:

  • Imidacloprid (Trimax 4): product is relatively safe.  Trimax application has a moderate cost if using the low rate of application.
  • Thiamethoxam (Centric 40WG): Product is relatively safe.  Cost is moderate to high.
  • NOTES: most pyrethroid insecticides will provide some control of plant bugs when used to control other pests.

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

  • Scouting to determine level of infestation.
  • Sweep netting.
  • Cotton Bollworm / Tobacco Budworm

    (Helicoverpa zea, Heliothis virescens)

    Cotton bollworm larvae feed on squares blooms and bolls.  They chew holes into the base of bolls and may hollow out locks.  Moist frass usually accumulates around the base of the boll. Larvae may also chew shallow gouges in the boll surface, which can become infected with rot organisms. Squares injured by cotton bollworm usually have a round hole near the base. Fifth-instar larvae are the most destructive; they not only damage more fruit than do earlier instars, but they damage larger fruit that are harder for the plant to replace.  Damaging populations usually do not appear until late in the season, after treatments for other pests have disrupted natural enemies.  This pest has several generations per year, and takes about 32-40 days for development from each to adult.  Generally, four or more generations are common in Tennessee.

    Tobacco budworm generally causes similar damage as the cotton bollworm.  The tobacco budworm has become highly resistant to pyrethroid insecticides and it is extremely important to determine the difference between these species prior to applying control measures.  Pyrethroid insecticide applications alone should be avoided if tobacco budworms are present.

    IPM tactics:

  • Prior to bloom insecticide treatments should be made when eight or more small larvae are present per 100 plants (or when populations threaten to reduce square retention below 80 percent). 

  • After bloom treat when four or more small larvae per 100 plants are present (or 5 percent or more of the squares are damaged and larvae are present).

  • In both Bt and Non-Bt cotton, the treatment threshold should gradually increase after cotton reaches cutout (NAWF5) until NAWF5 +350-450 DD60’s at which time insecticide applications for bollworm and budworm are no longer necessary.

    Chemicals commonly used in non-Bt cotton:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

  • Acephate (Orthene 90S): may be mixed at a median rate with a pyrethroid.  Cost could be low to extremely high depending on rate used.
  • Chloropyrifos (Lorsban 4): generally mixed with a pyrethroid to provide optimum control.  Moderately priced at low to medium rates.
  • Profenofos (Curacron 8): cost is relatively high, restricted use pesticide.
  • Carbamate insecticides:

  • Methomyl (Lannate LV 2.4): cost varies from low to high depending on rate used.
  • Thiodicarb (Larvin 3.2): Cost may be moderate to high depending on rate used. Provides ovicidal and larvicidal control of both worms.
  • Pyrethroid insecticides:

  • Bifenthrin (Capture 2): Depending on rate of use, cost is moderate to extremely high.  Budworm may develop resistant with continued use.
  • Cyfluthrin (Baythroid 2): cost is low to moderate.  Budworm may develop resistance with continued use
  • Cyhalothrin (Karate 2.08): cost is moderate for this product.  Budworm may develop resistance with continued use.
  • Cypermethrin (Up-Cyde, Ammo 2.5): very low cost. Budworm may develop resistance with continued use.
  • Deltamethrin (Decis 1.5): cost is medium to high. Budworm may develop resistance with continued use.
  • Esfenvalerate (Asana XL 0.66): cost is medium to high.  Budworm may develop resistance with continued use.
  • Zeta-Cypermethrin (Mustang Max 0.8): cost is low.  Budworm may develop resistance with continued use.
  • Non-organophosphate, non-carbamate, non-pyrethroid insecticides:

  • Emamectin benzoate (Denim 0.16): is a synthetic avermectin, fairly safe to use
  • Indoxacarb (Steward 1.25): safe,  expensive.
  • Spinosad (Tracer 4): safe, has a 28-day PHI.  Very expensive.

    NOTES: Monitoring and control must be aimed at the eggs and small larvae.  Pyrethroid insecticides are not recommended against tobacco budworm because of the potential of insecticide resistance.  Tank mixing pyrethroids with other insecticides with other chemistries may improve control of this pest.  Pyrethroid insecticides should not be used if budworms are a significant part of the infestation or if larval densities are high.  All pyrethroids are restricted use pesticides.

    Non-chemical pest management practices:

  • Scouting for predators and parasites. Many predators and parasites substantially help maintain cotton bollworm populations at low levels.  Insecticide sprays for other pests will disrupt this natural control and may result in severe outbreaks of this pest.
  • Second generation Bt cotton (Bollgard II) provides improved control of this pest.
  • Cotton bollworms are attracted to succulent, rank-growing cotton plants; keep water, fertilizer, and plant density at recommended levels to avoid rank growth. Because populations seldom reach damaging levels before late summer, manage the crop for early maturing and plan to defoliate by late September.
  • Stink bugs

    Green, Southern green, and brown 

    (Acrosternum hilare, Nezara viridula, Euschitus servus)

    Stink bugs are seed feeders and have piercing mouthparts.  They penetrate the bolls of cotton.  Heavy infestations may cause boll drop. Stinkbug populations may increase due to the number of insecticide applications being reduced when following boll weevil eradication guidelines.  Stink bugs are seed feeders and cause injury to developing bolls.  The lint of bolls may become stained and seed may become destroyed.   Damaged bolls may rot due to secondary infection by plant pathogens.  Lint production may be reduced in one or more locks.

    IPM tactics:

    Insecticides commonly used:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

    Pyrethroid insecticides:

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

    Spider mites

    (Tetranychus urticae)

    Both immature and adult stages of spider mites cause injury to cotton using piercing and sucking-like mouthparts.  Adults may overwinter as adults but may remain partially active throughout the year.  They disperse by crawling or by wind transport.  They may complete a generation as little as 4 to 5 days and many generations are possible in cotton. These pests are most severe during hot dry weather.  Mites reduce the plant’s ability to produce photosynthate and under severe infestations, may cause defoliation.

    IPM tactis:

    Chemicals commonly used:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

    Pyrethroid insecticides:

    Non-organophosphate, non-carbamate, non-pyrethroid insecticides:

    Products available but seldom used:

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

    Fall armyworm

    (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    This species of armyworm has a wide host range that includes various field crops as well as non-cultivated plants.  Eggs of this pest hatch within 2-5 days, and larvae have five to six instars following pupation within the soil.  During a normal summer, it takes approximately 30 days for development from egg to newly emerged adult.  The first generation of Bt cotton does not provide complete control of this pest.  Fall armyworms feed on blooms and small bolls.

    Chemicals commonly used:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

    Carbamate insecticides:

    Non-organophosphate, non-carbamate, non-pyrethroid insecticides:

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

    Beet armyworm

    (Spodoptera exigua)

    The beet armyworm is an occasionally pest of cotton, soybeans and a number of vegetable crops.  It also feeds on a variety of wild hosts including pigweed, which is a preferred host.  After eggs are laid, they hatch within 2-4 days, and larvae will feed for about 5 days.  Larvae go through 5-6 instars before pupating in the soil.  It takes 25-30 days for the development from the egg to adult stage at normal summer temperatures and four or more generations may occur per year in Tennessee.  This is generally a pest during dry years and may be a greater threat in years where broad-spectrum insecticides have been used which have reduced natural enemies of this pest.  Larvae are primarily defoliators but may also be found feeding on squares and bolls.  They may also cause yield losses to the original Bt cotton (Bollgard Cotton).

    Chemicals commonly used:

    Non-organophosphate, non-carbamate, non-pyrethroid insecticides:

    Products used for other pests and can provide control and include beet armyworms on the label:

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

    IPM tactics used:

    Loopers; Cabbage, Soybean

    (Trichoplusia ni, Pseudoplusia includens)

    Both species of loopers have a relatively wide host range and may be found on any number of wild, vegetable and field crops.  Cabbage looper larvae pupate in the soil and soybean looper larvae pupate on the underside of leaves in a loose silkened cocoon.  It takes each about 25-30 days for development from egg to adult.  Females are capable of laying 600-700 eggs.  Cotton is most susceptible to defoliation during the peak boll maturation phase, approximately 2-6 weeks after blooming begins.  However, serious infestations of this pest usually are uncommon until September.

    Chemicals commonly used for control:

    NOTES:  Soybean loopers are more difficult to control than cabbage loopers, in part due to resistance developed to pyrethroid insecticides.

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

    Whitefly

    (Homoptera: Alerodidae)

    Whiteflies are small insects that feed as nymphs and adults on plant sap with piercing-sucking mouthparts.  With rare exceptions, the bandedwinged whitefly (Trialeurodes abutilonea) is the only species that infests cotton in Tennessee.  The bandedwinged whitefly has a wide host range and may be found infesting many types of plant species. Hatching eggs produce crawlers that form into an immobile nymph stage.  Whiteflies develop rapidly form the egg to the adult stage (12-14 days at summertime temperatures), and they may have many overlapping generations per year.  Generally, whiteflys are not a serious threat to cotton grown in Tennessee.  Heavy infestations can weaken plants and cause leaves to wilt and yellow.  Honeydew excretions from feeding nymphs will accumulate on plants and may cause reduced photosynthesis therefore, reducing yield.


    IPM tactics:

    Chemicals commonly used for control:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

    Pyrethroid insecticides:

    Non-organophosphate, non-carbamate, non-pyrethroid insecticides:

    Possible chemical alternatives:

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

    Cotton Aphid

    (Aphis gossypii)

    Aphids may appear early to mid or late season.  They are often observed on various plants on the field borders.  Some in-furrow seed treatments used for thrip control may suppress early-season aphid populations, where mid-late season populations may need a foliar application of an insecticide for control.  They occasionally cause economic damage, however severe damage may occur when plants are stress during dry weather.  Aphids are often found on undersides of leaves feeding on the terminals and other parts of cotton.  They feed by sucking plant sap from the plant. Often honeydew may accumulate; therefore, reducing plant photosynthesis.   Severe infestations can seriously stunt plants and reduce yields, particularly if populations persist for long periods.  Rainy weather aids in keeping populations low.

    IPM tactics:

    Chemicals commonly used for control:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

    Non-organophosphate, non-carbamate, non-pyrethroid insecticides:

    Chemicals available but seldom used:

    NOTES:  Populations are often flared by use of many insecticides that reduce populations of important predators and parasites.  Insecticides are generally only recommended during mid-to late season if honeydew starts to accumulate.

    Non-chemical pest management tools:


    Boll Weevil

    (Anthonomus grandis grandis)

    The boll weevil has an elongated snout, which has chewing mouthparts.  Immature life stages may be found in developing cotton bolls and squares, these include; eggs, larvae and pupae.   The adult overwinters usually in well-drained sites in fence rows and in wooded areas.  They usually have 3 to 4 generations per year in Tennessee.  Each female may lay from 100-300 eggs which take approximately 20 days to hatch and emerge into adults from infested squares.  After 4-5 days, newly emerged adult females will begin laying eggs.  Both males and female adults bore holes into developing bolls and squares.  Females lay eggs inside squares when they are available.  Feeding and oviposition injury usually results in abscission of squares and small bolls, therefore reducing yield.  Pheromone traps are used to detect and then trigger the use of insecticides for control of this pest.

    IPM tactics:

    Chemicals commonly used for control:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

    NOTES: Malathion is the insecticide used in the eradication program. Applications target the adult pest.  Sequential insecticide applications on a 4-5 day interval are necessary against established populations.

    Other products used in cotton production:

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

    NOTES:  The boll weevil has successfully been controlled by the boll weevil eradication program.  This program has essentially eliminated the pest from the state.  In past years, the boll weevil was one of the worst pests in cotton production.  The program has reduced past year’s high control costs to lower control cost to $3-4 per acre to maintain the program.  The use of the program results in an increase of statewide yields.

    Cutworms

    Black, subterranean, and variegated

    (Agrotis ipsilon, Feltial subterranean, and Peridroma saucia)

    Cutworm damage occurs most frequently following legume cover crops on in reduced tillage systems.  Most species have a wide host range and may injure many cultivated plant species.  Adult females usually lay eggs in fencerow grasses or other weedy plants growing near production fields.  Most species have two or more generations per year.  They are sporadic pests typically causing economic injury to a small percentage of cotton fields each year.  However, severe infestations can reduce stands to the extent that replanting may be necessary.

    IPM tactics

    Chemicals commonly used for control:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

    Carbamate insecticides:

    Pyrethroid insecticides:

    NOTES: Since cutworms are sporadic in nature, spot treatment with pyrethroids may provide economical control.  Bt cotton will not effectively control large larvae that may be present at the time of planting.

    Non-chemical pest management tools:

    Other occasional invaders include, European corn borer, cotton leafperforator, cabbage bollworm, saltmarsh caterpillar, cotton fleahopper, cotton leafworm and various others. Most of the time insecticides are not needed for these pests, however, in the event control is needed many of the products used for other pests would provide control.

    Integrated Pest Management:

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a variety of control tactics rather than relying solely on one method of control, such as insecticide use only.  To reduce dependency on insecticides, cotton producers are encouraged to follow certain cultural practices.  These practices include fall stalk destruction, pre-plant vegetation management, field border maintenance, managing for earliness (early maturing crops often, decrease need for insecticides).  Many Tennessee producers are using cotton containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes.  Cotton with these incorporated genes aid in reducing insecticide applications. 


    Table 2.  Trade names, active ingredients, rates, REI, PHI and signalwords of major products labeled for use in cotton production.

    Trade Name

    Active Ingredient

    Rate/acre formulation

    Rate /AI lbs / acre

    REI

    SW

    PHI

    Acephate 90 S

    Acephate

    0.25 -  1 lb

    0.23 - 0.90

    24

    C

    21

    Acramite 50WS

    Bifenazate (50%)

    0.75-1.5 lb

    0.37 – 0.75

    12

    C

    60

    Admire 2 Flowable

    Imidacloprid (2)

    56.62 oz

    0.88

    12

    C

     

    * Ammo 2.5 EC

    α- Cypermethrin (2.5)

    1.3 – 5.0 fl oz

    0.025 – 0.1

    12

    C

    14

    * Asana XL (0.66)

    Esfenvalerate (0.66)

    5.8 – 9.6 fl oz

    0.03-0.05

    12

    W

    21

    * Azinphosmethyl 50W

    Azinphosmethyl (50%)

    0.25 – 1 lb

    0.125 – 0.50

    4-D

    D

    7

    * Baythroid 2

    Cyfluthrin (2)

    0.8 -3.2 fl oz

    0.0125- 0.05

    12

    D

    0

    Biobit HP

    Bacillus thuringiensis

     

    n/a

    4

    C

     

    *Capture 2 EC

    Bifenthrin

    2.4 – 6.4 fl oz

    0.04 – 0.10

    12

    W

     

    *Bidrin 8

    dicrotophos

    4 – 8 fl oz

    0.25 – 0.5

    48

    D

    30

    Centric 40WG

    thiamethoxam

    1.25 - 2 oz

    0.031 - 0.05

    12

    C

     

    Comite

    Propargite (6.55)

    1 – 2 pints

    0.82 – 1.64 lbs

    48

    D

    50

    Comite II  (6.55)

    propargite

    16 – 32 fl oz

    0.8 – 1.6

    7-day

    D

    50

    Condor

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    16 – 21.33 fl.oz

    n/a

    4

    C

     

    Confirm 2F

    tebufenozide

    4 – 16 fl.oz.

    0.06-0.25 lb

    4

    C

    14

    Crusier 5FS

    Thiomethoxam

    0.30mg/seed

    n/a

    12

    C

    NA

    Crymax

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    0.5 – 2 lbs

    n/a

    4

    C

    NA

    * Curacron  8E

    profenofos

    12 – 16 fl oz

    0.75 – 1.0

    48

    W

    14

    * Danitol 2.4 EC Spray

    fenpropathrin

    8 – 16 fl.oz.

    0.15 – 0.3 lb

    24

    W

    21

    * Decis .2 EC

    deltamethrin

    8.32 – 19.2 fl.oz.

    0.013- 0.03 lb

    12

    D

     

    * Decis 1.5 EC

    deltamethrin

    1.11 – 2.56 fl oz

    0.013- 0.03 lb

    12

    D

     

    Deliver

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    0.25 – 1.5 lbs

    na

    4

    C

     

    Deliver LC

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    1 – 4 pints

    na

    4

    C

     

    * Denim (0.16)

    Emamectin benzoate

    8 – 12 fl oz

    0.01 – 0.015

    48

    D

    21

    * Dimilin 25W

    Diflubenzuron (25%)

    2 – 4 oz

    0.03125 – 0.125 lb

    12

    C

    14

    * Dimilin 2L

    Diflubenzuron (2)

    2-8 fl.oz.

    0.03125 – 0.125 lb

    12

    C

    14

    Dipe lDF

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    0.5 – 2 lbs

    na

    4

    C

     

    Dipel ES

    Bacillus thuringiensist

    1 – 4 pints

    na

    4

    C

     

    * Di-Syston 15G

    Disulfoton (15%)

    4 – 6.7 lbs

    0.6 – 1 lb

    48

    D

    28

    * Di-Syston 8 E*

    Disulfoton (8)

    9 – 16 floz.

    0.56 – 1 lb

    48

    D

    28

    * Double Threat

    Bifenthrin (2)

    1.28 – 6.4 fl.oz.

    0.05 – 0.10 lb

    24

    W

    28

    * Empower2

    Bifenthrin (2)

    3.5 – 8.7 lb

    0.04 – 0.10 lb

    24

    C

    14

    Fulfill

    Pymetrozine (50%)

    2.75 oz.

    0.086 lbs

    12

    C

    21

    * Furadan 4F

    Carbofuran

    1 qt.

    1 lb.

    12-D

    D

     

    * Fury

    Cyhalothrin (1.5)

    1.4 – 3.8 oz.

    0.016 – 0.045 lb

    12

    W

    14

    Gaucho (480)

    imidachloprid

    6-8 fl.oz. /100 lbs seed

     

    12

    C

    14

    Gemstar LC

    virus

    10.14 fl.oz.

    na

    4

    C

     

    * Guthion 2L

    Azinphos-methyl (2)

    8 – 32 floz.

    0.125 – 0.5 lbs

    48

    D

    7

    * Guthion Solupack

    Azinphos-methyl (50)

    0.25  - 1 lb

    0.125 – 0.5

    48

    D

    7

    Interpid 2F

    methoxyfenozide

    4 -10 fl oz

    0.06 – 0.16

    4

    C

     

    Intruder (70WP)

    acetamiprid

    0.6 – 1.1 oz

    0.026 – 0.048

    12

    C

    28

    Javelin WG

    Bt

    0.25 – 1.5 lbs

    na

    4

    C

     

    * Karate with zeon (2.08)

    cyhalothirn

    0.96-2.56 fl oz

    0.015 – 0.04

    24

    W

    21

    Kelthane MF

    Dicofol (4)

    1.5 – 3 pints

    0.75 – 1.5 lbs

    12

    C

    30

    Knack  (0.86)

    pyriproxyfen

    8-10 oz

    0.05 -0.067 lb

    12

    C

    28

    * Lannate LV (2.4)

    methomyl

    16 - 24 fl oz

    0.30 - 0.45 lb

    72

    D

    15

    * Lannate SP *

    Methomyl (90%)

    0.125 – 0.5 lbs

    0.11 – 0.45 lb

    72

    D

    15

    * Larvin 3.2

    Thiodicarb

    12 – 36 fl oz

    0.3 – 0.9

    12

    W

    28

    Lepinox WDG

    Bacillus Th  kurstaki

    1 – 2 lbs

    na

    4

    W

     

    * Leverage 2.7

    Cyfluthrin and imidacloprid

    2.75-3.75 fl.oz.

    0.058 – 0.079 lb

    12

    W

    14

    Lorsban 75 WG

    Chlorpyrifos

    0.25 -1.33 lbs

    0.1875 – 1.0 lb

    24

    W

     

    * Lorsban 4E

    Chlorpyrifos

    6 - 32 floz

    0.19 – 1 lb

    24

    W

     

    * Monitor 4

    metamidophos

    8 – 16 fl oz

    0.25 – 0.5

    48

    D

    50

    * Monitor 4 Spray

    Metamidophos (4)

    3.2 -32 floz.

    0.1 – 1 lb

    48

    D

    50

    * Mustang

    Zeta-cypermethrin (1.5)

    1.4 - 4.3 floz

    0.016 – 0.05

    12

    W

    14

    * Mustang 1.5 EW

    Zeta cypermethrin (1.5)

    1.4 – 4.3 oz

    0.016 – 0.05

    12

    W

    14

    * Mustang Max  (0.8)

    Zeta-cypermethrin

    1.28 – 3.6 floz

    0.008 – 0.0225

    12

    W

    14

    Neemix 4.5  (0.34)

    Azadirachtin (0.34)

    4 – 16 fl oz.

    0.085 – 0.34 lbs

    12

    W

     

    Orthene 75 S

    Acephate

    0.66 – 1.33 lb

    0.5 – 1 lb

    24

    C

    21

    Orthene 90 S

    Acephate

    0.28 – 1.1 lb

    0.25 – 1.0 lb

    24

    C

    21

    Orthene 97

    Acephate

    0.5 – 1lb

    0.48 – 0.97 lb

    24

    C

    21

    Phaser 3EC

    Endosulfan

    16 – 64 fl.oz.

    0.375 – 1.5 lbs.

    24

    D

    0

    Provado Flowable 1.6

    imidacloprid

    2 – 3.75 floz

    0.025 – 0.046

    12

    C

     

    Steward (1.25)

    indoxacarb

    9.2 - 11.3 fl oz

    0.9- 0.11

    12

    C

     

    * Telone EC

    Dichloropropene (9.45)

    12 gallons

    113.4 lbs

    5-D

    W

     

    * Temik 15G

    Aldicarb

    3.5 - 7

    0.5 – 1.0 lb

    48

    D

     

    * Temik 15G CP

    Aldicarb

    3.5 - 7

    0.5 – 1.0 lb

    48

    D

     

    * Temik 15G Lock & Load

    Aldicarb

    3.5 – 7

    0.5 - 1.0 lb

    48

    D

     

    * Terracolor Super X Plus Di-syston

    PCNB, Etridiazole, Disulfoton

    4 – 5.5 pints

    1.7 – 2.34 lb

    48

    D

     

    * Thimet 20 G

    phorate

    3.3 lb

    0.66 lb

    48

    D

     

    Thionex 3EC

    Endosulfan (3)

    0.5 – 2 qts

    0.375 – 1.5 lbs

    24

    D

     

    Thionex 50W

    Endosulfan (50%)

    0.75 – 3 lbs

    0.375 – 1.5 lbs

    24

    D

     

    Tracer  (4)

    spinosad

    1.4 – 2.9 fl oz

    0.045 – 0.09 lbs

    4

    C

     

    Trimax (4)

    imidacloprid

    1.5 fl oz

    0.047

    12

    C

     

    * Vydate C-LV (3.77)

    Oxamyl (3.77)

    8.5 – 34 fl oz

    0.235 – 1.00 lb

    48

    D

    14

    * Vydate L

    Oxamyl (2)

    0.5 – 1 pint

    0.125 – 0.25 lbs

    48

    D

    21

    * Warrior with Zeon

    Lambda Cyhalothrin

    1.92-5.12 floz.

    0.015 – 0.04 lbs

    24

    W

    21

    Xen Tari

    Bacillus Thuringiensis

    0.5 – 2 lbs

    na

    4

    C

     

    * Zephyr

    Abamectin (avermectin) (0.15)

    4-16 fl.oz.

    0.0375 -0.15 lbs

    12

    W

    20

    Malathion (5)

    Malathion (5)

    32 fl oz

    1.25

    12

    W

    0

    Methyl parathion (4)

    Methyl parathion

    8 – 32 fl oz

    0.25 – 1.0

    96

    D

    1

    Dimethoate (4)

    Dimethoate

    4 – 8 oz.

    0.125 – 0.25

    48

    W

    14

    Thiolux Jet

    Sulfur

    3 -5 lbs

    2.4 – 4 lbs

    24

    C

     

    * =  Restricted Use Pesticide

    Cotton Insecticides:

    Organophosphate insecticides:

    Carbamate insecticides:

    Pyrethroid insecticides:

    NOTES: no more than 10 applications of any one pyrethroid or combinations of pyrethroids should be made in one season.  All pyrethroid insecticides are restricted use pesticides.

    Non-organophosphate, non-carbamate, non-pyrethroid insecticides:

    Biological control agents:


    Table 3. Estimated insecticide usage in 2004 cotton production1 

    Active Ingredient

    Trade Name

    Estimated %

    acreage treated

    Acephate

    Acephate 90 S

    40 (all acephate products)

    Orthene 75 S

     

    Orthene 90 S

     

    Orthene 97

     

    Bifenazate (50%)

    Acramite 50WS

    0

    Imidacloprid (2)

    Admire 2 Flowable

    0

    α- Cypermethrin (2.5)

    Up-Cyde, Ammo 2.5 EC

    25

    Esfenvalerate (0.66)

    Asana XL (0.66)

    5

    Azinphosmethyl *

    Azinphosmethyl 50W

    No longer labeled –trace for older product

    Guthion 2L

    No longer labeled

    Guthion Solupack

    No longer labeled

    Cyfluthrin (2)

    Baythroid 2

    25

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    Biobit HP

    0

    Bifenthrin

    Capture 2 EC

    8

    dicrotophos

    Bidrin 8

    40

    thiamethoxam

    Centric 40WG

    35

    propargite

    Comite

    0

    propargite

    Comite II  (6.55)

    0

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    Condor

    0

    tebufenozide

    Confirm 2F

    0

    Thiomethoxam

    Crusier 5FS

    40

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    Crymax

    0

    profenofos

    Curacron  8E

    1

    fenpropathrin

    Danitol 2.4 EC Spray

    0

    deltamethrin

    Decis .2 EC

    0

    deltamethrin

    Decis 1.5 EC

    1

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    Deliver

    0

    Bacillus thuringiensis

    Deliver LC

    0

    Emamectin benzoate

    Denim (0.16)

    1

    Diflubenzuron (25%)

    Dimilin 25W

    0

    Diflubenzuron

    Dimilin 2L

    1

    Bt

    Dipe lDF

    0

    Bt

    Dipel ES

    0

    Disulfoton

    Di-Syston 15G

    Trace

    Disulfoton

    Di-Syston 8

    2

    Bifenthrin (2)

    Double Threat

    1

    Bifenthrin

    Empower2

    0

    pymetrozine

    Fulfill

    0

    Carbofuran

    Furadan 4F

    0

    imidachloprid

    Gaucho (480)

    40

    Polyhedral Occulsion body, virus

    Gemstar LC

    0

    methoxyfenozide

    Interpid 2F

    1

    acetamiprid

    Intruder (70WP)

    5

    Bt

    Javelin WG

    0

    cyhalothirn

    Karate with zeon (2.08)

    30

    Dicofol

    Kelthane MF

    2

    pyriproxyfen

    Knack  (0.86)

    0

    methomyl

    Lannate LV (2.4)

    2

    Methomyl

    Lannate SP

    0

    Methomyl

    Lannate 3.2

    0

    Thiodicarb

    Larvin 3.2

    1

    Bacillus Th  kurstaki

    Lepinox WDG

    0

    Cyfluthrin and imidacloprid

    Leverage 2.7

    10

    Chlorpyrifos

    Lorsban 75 WG

    0

    Chlorpyrifos

    Lorsban 4E

    5

    metamidophos

    Monitor 4

    2

    metamidophos

    Monitor 4 Spray

    0

    Zeta-cypermethrin (1.5)

    Mustang

    0

    Zeta cypermethrin (1.5)

    Mustang 1.5 EW

    0

    Zeta-cypermethrin (0.8)

    Mustang Max  (0.8)

    15

    Azadirachtin

    Neemix 4.5  (0.34)

     

    Endosulfan

    Phaser 3EC

    0

    imidacloprid

    Provado Flowable 1.6

    Not available

    indoxacarb

    Steward (1.25)

    1

    dichloropropene

    Telone EC

    0

    Aldicarb

    Temik 15G

    20

    Temik 15G CP

     

    Temik 15G Lock & Load

     

    PCNB, Etridiazole, Disulfoton

    Terracolor Super X Plus D

    Trace

    phorate

    Thimet 20 G

    0

    Endosulfan

    Thionex 3EC

    0

    endosulfan

    Thionex 50W

    0

    spinosad

    Tracer  (4)

    1

    imidacloprid

    Trimax (4)

    35

    oxamyl

    Vydate C-LV (3.77)

    5

    oxamyl

    Vydate L

    0

    Lambda Cyhalothrin

    Warrior with Zeon

    0

    Bacillus Thuringiensis

    Xen Tari

    0

    Abamectin (avermectin)

    Zephyr

    0

    Malathion (5)

    Malathion (5)

    1

    Methyl parathion

    Methyl parathion (4)

    1

    Dimethoate

    Dimethoate (4)

    4

    * To be phased out by end of 2005.

    1 Estimated percent acreage treated with listed product.  Estimated

      by Scott Stewart, Extension Cotton Entomologist.

    Table 4.  Estimated insecticide efficacy of several insecticides.

    Pesticide or method of control

    APHIDS

    THRIPS

    CUTWORMS

    FALLARMYWORM

    BEETARMYWORM

    BOLLWEEVIL

    TOBACCOBUDWORM

    COTTONBOLLWORM

    PLANTBUGS

    SOYBEANLOOPER

    CABBAGELOOPER

    SPIDERMITES

    STINKBUGS

    WHITEFLIES

    Ammo, Up-Cyde

    P

    G

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    G

    P

    Asana

    P

    G

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    G

    P

    Baythroid

    P

    G

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    E

    G

    P

    G

    P

    G

    P

    Bidrin

    G

    E

    P

    P

    P

    E

    P

    P

    E

    P

    P

    P

    E

    P

    Capture

    P

    G

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    E

    P

    Centric

    E

    F

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    Comite

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    P

    P

    Confirm

    P

    P

    F

    F

    G

    P

    P

    P

    P

    F

    G

    P

    P

    P

    Cruiser

    E

    E

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    Curacron

    F

    F

    G

    F

    P

    P

    F

    G

    F

    P

    G

    F

    F

    P

    Decis

    P

    G

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    E

    G

    P

    G

    P

    G

    P

    Denim

    P

    P

    G

    F

    G

    P

    G

    G

    P

    E

    E

    G

    P

    P

    Dimethoate

    F

    G

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    F

    P

    P

    F

    F

    P

    Dimilin

    P

    P

    P

    F

    P

    F

    P

    P

    P

    F

    G

    P

    P

    P

    Di-syston

    G

    G

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    n/a

    n/a

    n/a

    n/a

    n/a

    n/a

    FulFill

    G

    G

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    Furadan

    E

    F

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    F

    P

    P

    P

    F

    P

    Gaucho

    G

    E

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    n/a

    n/a

    n/a

    n/a

    n/a

    n/a

    Intrepid

    P

    P

    G

    G

    E

    P

    F

    F

    P

    E

    E

    P

    P

    P

    Intruder

    E

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    F

    P

    P

    P

    P

    E

    Karate

    P

    G

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    E

    G

    P

    G

    P

    G

    P

    Kelthane

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    E

    P

    P

    Lannate

    F

    F

    F

    F

    P

    P

    F

    G

    F

    G

    E

    F

    F

    F

    Larvin

    P

    P

    G

    G

    P

    P

    F

    G

    P

    E

    E

    P

    P

    P

    Leverage

    G

    G

    G

    F

    P

    F

    P

    G

    G

    P

    G

    P

    F

    F

    Lorsban

    P

    P

    G

    F

    P

    P

    P

    F

    F

    P

    G

    P

    F

    P

    Malathion

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    P

    P

    G

    P

    F

    P

    F

    P

    Methyl parathion

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    E

    P

    P

    F

    P

    P

    P

    E

    P

    Monitor

    P

    E

    F

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    P

    F

    P

    F

    G

    Mustang max

    P

    G

    E

    F

    P

    G

    P

    E

    G

    P

    G

    P

    G

    P

    Orthene

    P

    E

    G

    P

    P

    P

    F

    F

    G

    F

    G

    P

    G

    G

    Trimax

    G

    E

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    Steward

    P

    P

    G

    G

    G

    P

    G

    G

    F

    E

    E

    P

    P

    P

    Temik

    E

    E

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    g

    N/A

    N/A

    Tracer

    P

    F

    G

    G

    G

    P

    E

    G

    P

    E

    E

    P

    P

    P

    Vydate

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    P

    P

    G

    P

    P

    F

    G

    P

                                 

    Bollgard II

    n/a

    n/a

    F

    G

    E

    n/a

    E

    G

    n/a

    E

    E

    n/a

    n/a

    n/a

    Efficacy is rate dependent,  N/A=not available, P=poor, F=fair, G=good, E=excellent

     

    Weeds

    To be successful, weed management systems require advance planning and timely execution.  A few days delay in an application may mean reduced control, higher future herbicide rates, and greater herbicide costs.  Weed management systems for cotton should prevent weed interference, be economical and sustainable, reduce weed seed bank in soil, prevent weed resistance and neither injure cotton nor reduce quality, lint or seed yield.

    Herbicide Usage:

    Various herbicides are used in Tennessee’s cotton production systems.  Depending on the type of production system used by producers, weeds present, weed pressure, crops to follow within the rotation scheme, the herbicide(s) choosen may differ greatly from field to field and farm to farm.  Some of the production systems are listed below.  Table 5 lists several of the herbicides labeled for use in cotton production.

    Preemergence herbicides used for conventional or no-till cotton production:

    Preplant incorporated herbicides used for conventionally planted cotton:

    Burndown herbicides used for no-till cotton production:

    Overtop herbicides for cotton:

    Post-emergent herbicides:

    Post-directed herbicides recommended for cotton:


    Table 5.  Herbicides labeled for use in cotton production.

    Tradename

    applied

    Active ingredient

    Rate / acre

    Rate ai / acre

    NOTES

    SW

    REI

    PHI

    Aim

    PE, PO

    Carfentrazone-ethyl (40%)

    5 oz

    0.125

    Some rotation restrictions

    C

    12

    7

    Aim EC

    PE, PO, HA

    Carfentrazone-ethyl (2)

    0.8– 1.6floz

    0.013 – 0.025

    No more than 3.2 or 0.05 lbs per season

    C

    12

    7

    Aim EW

     

    Carfentrazone-ethyl (1.9)

    7.8

    0.4

     

    C

    12

    7

    Assure II

    PO

    Quizalofop (0.88E)

    5 – 10 oz

    0.034 – 0.069

    Crop oil or surfactant should be added to obtain best control.  Higher rates are normally needed for annual grasses or bermudagrass control

    D

    12

     

    Banvel 4EC

    PE

    Dicamba (4EC)

    8 floz

    0.25 lbs

    Must wait 21-days before planting cotton and must receive at least 1 inch of rainfall.

    W

    24

     

    Buctril 4EC

    PO

    Bromoxynil (4EC)

    0.75 – 1 pt

    0.38 – 0.5 lb

    BXN cotton varieties only. Excellent control of DSMA resistant cocklebur.  Weak on pigweed, spurge and sicklepod.   No more than 2 application before cotton reaches 12 inches tall and one application allowed after 12 inhes. No more than 3 pts per acre per season

    W

    24

    75

    Caparol 4L

    PE, PO, BD

    Prometryn

    2.4 – 4.8pts

    1.2  -  2.4

    Winter weed control, and preemergence

    C

    12

     

    Cinch

    PE, BD

    S-metolachlor (7.64)

    0.8 – 1.0pt

    0.76 – 0.955

     

    C

    24

     

    Clarity

    NT, BD

    Dicamba (4SL)

    8 oz

    0.25 lb

    For additional control of difficult weeds such as cutleaf eveningprimrose, chickweed, henbit, and deadnettle.  Must have at least an accumulation of 1 inch of rainfall prior to planting cotton.

    C

    24

     

    Cobra

    PE

    Lactofen (2)

    12.5 floz

    0.195

     

    D

    12

     

    Command 3ME

    PE, NT,CV

    Clomazone

    1.33 – 3.33pt

    0.5 – 1.25

     

    C

    12

    65

    Credit Systemic Extra

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (4)

    16-48 floz

    0.5 – 1.5

    On RR hybrids

    C

    12

     

    Def  6

    HA

    Tributyl-phosphorotrithioate (6)

    1.33 – 1.5pt

    0.98 -1.125

     

    D

    7-D

     

    Direx

    PD

    Diuron (4L, 80%)

         

    C

    12

     

    Dropp 50 WP

    HA

    Phenyl-thiadiazol-ylurea(50%)

    0.2 – 0.4 lbs

    0.1 – 0.2 lbs

    Actively growing cotton, high humidity, high moisture content of leaf, rotation time

    C

    24

    5

    Dropp SC

    HA

    Phenyl-thiadiazol-ylurea(4)

    1.6-6.4 fl oz.

    0.1 – 0.2 lbs

    Rotation time

    C

    24

     

    DSMA

    PO

    Disodium methanearsonate (3.6)

    128 fl oz

    3.6 lbs

    Do not allow livestock to feed or graze in treated areas, do not apply after first bloom

    C

    12

     

    Dual II Maagum

    PE, PO

    S-metholahlor (7.62)

    0.5 – 1.33pts

    0.47 - 1.26

    Not to be used on sand or sandy loam soils

    C

    24

     

    Envoke

    PO

    Trifloxysulfuron-sodium (75%)

    0.1 – 0.25 oz

    0.00468 – 0.0117 lbs

    No aerial applications

    C

    12

    60

    Ethephon 6

    HA

    Ethephon (6)

    1.33 – 2.66 pt

    1 - 2

     

    D

    48

    7

    Finish 6

    HA

    Ethephon (6), cyclanilide (0.75)

    1.33 -2.66pt

    1.12 – 2.24

     

    D

    48

    7

    Finish 6 Pro

    HA

    Ethephon (6), cyclanilide (0.375)

    1.33 -2.66pt

    1.06 – 2.11

     

    D

    48

    7

    Fire Power

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (4),

    oxyfluorfen (3)

    24 – 48 fl.oz.

    1.31 – 2.63 lb

    Roundup ready cotton must be used

    or directed using hooded sprayer

    C

    24

    75

    Fusilade DX

    PO

    Fluazifop (2E)

    6-12 oz

    0.094 – 0.188 lb

    Controls roundup ready corn, crop oil or surfactant should be added.  Apply to grasses before they reach 4” tall and johnsongrass at 8-18” tall.  Repeat applications may be needed for bermudagrass

    C

    12

    90

    Fusion DX 2E

    PO

    Fluazifop (2) &

    Fenoxaprop (0.56)

    8-12 oz

    0.16-0.24 lb

    Controls roundup ready corn.  Crop oil or surfactant must be used

    C

    24

     

    Galigan 2E

    PO

    oxyfluorfen

    1-2pts

    0.25 – 0.50

     

    W

    24

    90

    Ginstar EC

    HA

    Thidiazuron (1)

    Diuron (0.5)

    6.4 – 16.0 floz

    0.074 – 0.187

     

    D

    24

     

    Glyphomax 

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (4)

    16 – 48floz

    0.5 – 1.5

    RR

    C

    12

    7

    Glyphomax Plus

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (4)

    12-48flz

    0.375- 1.5

    RR

    C

    4

     

    Glyphomax

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (4)

    12-48floz

    0.375 1.5

    RR

    W

    12

     

    Goal 2XL

    PO

    Oxyfluorfen (2)

    2pts

    0.5lbs

     

    W

    24

    90

    * Gramoxone Max

    NT, BD

    Paraquat (3SL)

    13-20oz

    0.3 – 0.47 lb

    Better control of chickweed, henbit, deadnettle, and cutleaf eveningprimrose than glyphosate. Nonionic surfactant should be added

    D

    24

    3

    Harmony Extra XP

    NT, BD

    Thifensulfuron-methyl (50%)

    Tribenuron-methyl (25%)

    0.3 – 0.6 oz

    0.014 – 0.028

    Do not exceed 1 oz / acre / season.  may be applied in the fall or early spring but must be applied 45+ days prior to planting.

    Aids in control of Pennsylvania smartweed, swinecress, henbit, and chickweed

    C

    12

     

    Harvade 5F

    HA, PD

    Dimethipin (4.9)

    8-10floz

    0.30 – 0.38

    No more than 14floz per acre per season

    C

    48

     

    Ignite

    NT, BD

    Glufosinate

    32-40oz

    1.67-2.09 lb

           

    Karmex

    PO

    Diruon (“80%)

    0.67 – 1.0 lb

    0.53 – 0.8 lbs

    Plant back restrictions

    C

    12

     

    Leafless

    HA

    Dimethipin (3.2)

    Thidiazuron (0.8)

    10-12floz

    0.31 – 0.375

     

    C

    48

    7

    Lintplus

    HA

    Dimethipin (2)

    20 floz

    0.3125

     

    C

    48

     

    Me-Too_lachlor

    PE, PO

    Metolachlor (8)

    0.75-1.33 pts

    0.75 – 1.33

     

    C

    24

     

    MSMA

    MSMA

    Monosodium acid methanearsonate (6, 6.6)

    16 - 42.6 fl oz

    0.75 – 2 lbs

    Not applied after first bloom

    C

    12

     

    Penita

    HA

    Mepiquat pentaborate (0.82)

    4 -24 floz

    0.025 – 0.15

     

    C

    12

    30

    Permit

    Previous year BD

    Halosulfuron-methyl (75%)

    0.66 -1.33floz

    0.031-0.062

    Has a 4 month waiting period until planting

    C

    12

    28

    Pix Ultra

    HA

    Mepiquat chloride (0.35)

    8-24 floz

    0.022 – 0.065

     

    C

    12

    30

    Pix Plus

    HA

    Mepiquat chloride (0.35)

    2 – 24 floz

    0.005 -0.066

     

    C

    12

    30

    Poast Plus

    PO

    Sethoxydim (1)

    2.5-7.5 pts

    0.3125 – 0.9375

     

    C

    12

    40

    Poast

    PO

    Sethoxydim (1.5)

    2.5 – 7.5 pts

    0.47 – 1.41

     

    W

    12

    40

    Prism

    PO

    Clethodim (0.94)

    13-34 floz

    0.09 – 0.24

     

    W

    24

    60

    Prowl

    PE

    Pendimethalin (3.3)

    1.8-4.8pts

    0.74 – 1.98

     

    C

    24

    60

    Prowl H2O

    PE

    Pendimethalin (3.8)

    2 – 4 pts

    0.95 – 1.90

     

    C

    24

    60

    Rattler

    pre

    Glyphosate (4)

    1 -2 qts

    1 – 2

     

    W

    12

    7

    Roundup Original

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (4)

    1 – 5 qts

    1 - 5

    RR

    W

    12

    14

    Roundup Original MAX

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (5.5)

    16 - 32 fl.oz.

    0.69 – 1.38

    RR,. directed

    C

    4

    14

    Roundup Original II

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (4)

    1 – 5 qts

    1 – 5 lbs

     

    W

    12

    14

    Roundup Ultra Dry

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (71%)

    19 -24 oz.

    0.75 – 0.95 lb

     

    C

    4

    14

    Roundup Ultra MAX

    BD, PO

    Glyphosate (5)

    20 – 32 fl.oz.

    0.78 - 1.25

     

    W

     

    14

    Roundup WeatherMax

    NT, BD

    Glyphosate (4.5)

    22 – 32 oz

    0.75 – 1.1 lb

    Followup applications of paraquat may be needed

    W

     

    14

    RT Master II

    BD, PE

    Glyphosate (5.5)

    12 - 32 fl.oz.

    0.51 – 1.38

     

    C

    4

     

    Select 2EC

    PO

    Clethodim

    6 – 16 floz

    0.094 – 0.25

     

    W

    24

    60

    Staple

    PE, PO

    Pyrithiobac sodium (85%)

       

    12 month plant back for most other crops

    W

    24

    60

    Staple Plus

    PE, PO

    Pyrithiobac sodium (1.7%)

    Glyphosate (40.2%)

         

    W

    24

     

    Susprend

    PO

    Prometryn (79.3%)

    Trifloxysulfuron-sodium (0.70)

    1 – 1.5 lbs

    0.8 – 1.2 lbs

    Do not exceed 5.15 lbs ai per acre per season of prometryn

    C

    12

     

    Thidiauron 50 WSB

    HA

    Thidazuron

    0.2 – 0.4 lb

    0.1 – 0.2

    Drift is a major concern with this product, plant back concerns

    C

    24

     

    Touchdown

    NT, BD

    Glyphosate (3)

    32 – 48 oz

    0.75 – 1.1 lb

     

    C

    12

    7

    Treflan HFP

    NT, BD

    Trifluralin (4)

    1 – 2.5 pints

    0.5 – 1.25 lbs

     

    C

    12

    90

    Valor

    NT, BD

    Flumioxazin (51 WDG)

    1 – 2 oz

    0.5 – 1 oz

    A minimum of 30 days must pass and 1 inch of rainfall/irrigation must occur between application and planting of cotton

         

    Zorial Rapid

    CV, NT, PE

    Norflurazon (78.6%)

    1.25 – 2.5 lbs

    1 – 2 lbs

    Do not graze treated fields or feed gin wastes to livestock

    C

    12

     

    Cotoran

    PE,NT,CV

    Flumeturon (4L, 85DF)

    2 – 4 pts, 1.2-2.4 lb

    1 -  2 lbs

    Do not allow livestock to fed or graze in treated areas.  Limited to 3 applications per season. 

    C

    24

    60

    Meturon

    PE,NT,CV

    Flumeturon (4L, 80DF)

    1.25 – 2.5 lbs

    1 - 2 lbs

     

    C

    24

    60

    Sodium chlorate

    HA

    Sodium chlorate

    various

    3 -4.5 lbs

     

    W

    12

    7

    * = restricted use pesticide

    NT=no-till, CV= conventional, BD=Burndown, PE=Preemergent, PO=Postemergent, HA= Harvest aid.


    Herbicide Classification

    I)                   Amino acid synthesis inhibitors

    a.       ALS/AHAS inhibitors

                                                                   i.      Imidazolinones

                                                                 ii.      Trizolopyrimidines

                                                                iii.      Sulfonylureas

    1.      trifloxysulfuron-sodium (Envoke): has a 60-day PHI and a 12 hour REI with Caution as the signal word.  Applied at the rate of 0.1 to 0.25 oz or 0.005 to 0.010 lbs ai per acre.  Cost ranges from $7.3 to 18.25 per acre per application.  It is used to control alligator weed, broadleaf panicum, cocklebur, coffee senna, common cocklebur, cutleaf evening primrose, florida beggarwood, flatsedge, guineagrass, hemp sesbania, horse purslane, itchgrass, ivyleaf morningglory, Johnsongrass (seedling), lambsquarters, pitted morningglory, purple nutsedge, redroot pigweed, Palmer pigweed, purple moonflower, red morningglory, scarlet morningglory, sicklepod, smooth pigweed, spiny pigweed, tall morningglory, tall pigweed, and yellow nutsedge.

    2.      Thifensulfuron methyl (Harmony Extra): no information is available for PHI.  It is a premix of thifensulfuron methyl (50%) and Tribenuron-methyl (25%), which is applied as a burndown.  It is applied in the fall or early spring 45-day prior to planting cotton.  It has Caution as the signal word and a 12-hr REI.  Applied at the formulation rate range of 0.3 to 0.6 oz or 0.014 to 0.028 lbs ai per acre.  Cost ranges from $3.83 to 7.66 per acre.  Aids in control of Pennsylvania smartweed, swinecress, henbit and chickweed.

                                                               iv.      Thiopyrimidines

    1.      Pyrithiobac sodium (Staple, Staple Plus): has a 60-day PHI.  It has Warning as the signal word and a 24-hr REI. Staple 85% formulation is pplied at the formulation rate range of 1.oz per acre pre-emergent or 1.8 oz as a post emergent product or 0.05 to 0.95 lbs ai per acre per application.  No more than 2.4 oz formulation per season allowed.  Cost may range from $19.10 to $34.38 per acre per application, depending on rate used.  The Plus formulation is a premix of Staple with glyphosate.  Has a 12-month plant back for most crops.  The Staple Plus formulation is difficult to obtain.  Poor performance on Palmer pigweed.  Effective on DSMA-resistant cocklebur.  Should not be mixed with malathion insecticides.  Grain sorghum should not be planted the following year.

    b.      ESPS Synthase inhibitor

                                                                   i.      Glycines

    1.      Glyphosate (Roundup, Credit Systemic Extra, others): It is available in many formulations.  In some instances a 7-day PHI is listed on labels.  Most formulations have Warning as the signal word and a 12-hr REI, however some do have Caution as the signal word and a 4-hr REI.  Applied at the rate of 0.375 tot 1.5 lbs per acre per application.  Glyphosate is often used as a burndown product the fall prior to planting to kill perennial weeds.  For glyphosate tolerant hybrids (Roundup Ready), glyphosate may be applied over the top of the crop as a postemergent application.  Marestail (horseweed) has been reported resistant to this product in West Tennessee.  Other weeds such as, cutleaf eveningprimrose, vetch, vetchling and other weeds may not be controlled by glyphosate.

    c.       Glutamine Synthetase Inhibitor

                                                                   i.      Phosphoric Acids

    1.      Glufosinate (Ignite): Only may be used on glufosinate tolerant hybrids and used as an over the top herbicide or burndown. Applied at the formulation rate of 32 to 40 fl.oz. or 1.67 to 2.09 lbs ai per acre per application.  Cost ranges from $8.97 to 11.22 per acre per application.  Used to control various morningglories, cocklebur, smartweed, sicklepod and jimsonweed.

    II)                 Cell Membrane Disrupters

    a.       Photosystem I Electron Diversion

                                                                   i.      Bipyridyliums

    1.      Paraquat (Gramoxone Max): has a 3-day-PHI.  It is a restricted use pesticide with Danger as the signal word and a 24-hr REI. Applied at the rate of 13-20 fl.oz. or 0.3 to 0.47 lbs ai per acre.  Used as a burndown the previous year or several weeks prior to planting.  Cost ranges from $4.43 to 6.81 per acre per application.

    b.      PPO Inhibitors

                                                                   i.      Diphenylethers

    1.      Lactofen (Cobra): It has Danger as a signal word and a 12-hr REI.  It is usually mixed with MSMA and used as a late post directed herbicide application. Lactofen applied at the rate of 12.5 fl oz or 0.2 lbs ai.  Cost is approximately $12.91 per application.  Crop oil is required also to obtain optimum control. When mixed with MSMA it provides excellent control of several morningglories. 

    2.      Oxyfluorfen (Galigan 2E, Goal 2): has a 90-day PHI and a 24-hr REI with Warning as the signal word. Applied at the rate of 1 to 2 pints or 0.25 to 0.5 lbs ai per acre per application.  Product is used as a post directed herbicide application for control of morningglories, common ragweed, sicklepod, velvetleaf, giant foxtail, barnyardgrass, nightshades, spiny amaranth, jimsonweed and many others.

                                                                 ii.      N-phenylpphthalimides

    1.      Flumioxazin (Valor ): This product does not have a PHI listed on the label,; however, has a 12-hr REI and Caution listed as the signal word. Applied at the rate ranging from 1 to 2 oz or 0.032 to 0.064 lbs ai per acre per application. Cost is $4.53 to 9.05 per acre per application.  Used as a burndown 30-days or more prior to planting cotton.  Treated areas should not be grazed or treated forage should not be fed to livestock.

                                                                iii.      Triazolinones

    1.      Carfentrazone-methyl (Aim, Aim EW 1.9): has a 7-day PHI and has a 12-hr REI with Caution as the signal word.  The 2E formulation is applied at the rate of 0.8 to 1.6 fl.oz. or 0.013 to 0.025 lbs ai per acre per application.  No more than 3.2 fl oz or 0.05 lbs ai per acre per season.  The EC formulation is slightly higher than the EW formulation. Cost ranges from $4.23 to 8.46 per application per acre. Some rotation restrictions are listed on the label.  When used in conjunction with atrazine it controls the following weeds up to 4 inches tall: Amarath (Palmer, spiny), Buffalobur, carpetweed, croton (woolly), devilsclaw, eveningprimrose (cutleaf), Hophornbeam (copperleaf), jimsonweed, kochia, common lambsquarter, morningglories (entireleaf, ivyleaf, pitted, scarlet, tall), nightshade (eastern black, silverleaf), pigweed (redroot, smooth, triazine resistant), common purslane, Russian thistle, sesbania hemp, spurred anoda, velvetleaf, Venice mallow, waterhemp (common, tall), and wild buckwheat.  Wild sunflower, annual smartweed, ragweed (common, giant), and common potato (volunteer) are only partially controlled or suppressed with an application of carfentrazone-ethyl with atrazine.

    III)              Lipid Synthesis Inhibitors

    a.       ACCase inhibitors

                                                                   i.      Aryloxyphenoxypropionates (FOP’s)

    1.      Quizalofop (Assure II): no PHI is listed on the label.  It has a 12-hr REI and Danger as the signal word.  Applied at the rate range of 5 to 10 fl.oz. or 0.034 to 0.069 lbs ai per acre per application.  Cost ranges from $5.27 to 10.55 per acre per application.  Crop oil surfactant usually needed.  Higher rates are normally needed for annual grasses or Bermuda grass control.  Do not graze livestock in treated areas, and do not feed forage, hay, or straw from treated areas to livestock.  Used to control volunteer corn, giant foxtail, seedling johnsongrass, shattercane, Wild proso millet, Crowfootgrass, Fall panicum, Field sandbur, Giant foxtail, Green foxtail, Yellow foxtail, Green foxtail, Goosegrass, Itchgrass, Springletop, Volunteer barley, Volunteer wheat, Volunteer oats, Volunteer rye, Wild oat, Witchgrass,  Barnyardgrass, Large crabgrass, Smooth crabgrass, Junglerice, Red rice, Woolly cupgrass, Broadleaf signalgrass, Wirestem muhly, Bermudagrass, Rhizome johnsongrass, and quackgrass.  Not applied to grass under stress.

    2.      Fluazifop (Fusilade, Fusion): has a 90-day PHI and has a 12-hr REI with Caution as the signal word.  The Fusilade 2E isapplied at the rate of 6-12 floz or 0.094 to 0.188 lbs ai per acre per application. Cost ranges from $6.61 to 13.21 per acre per application.  Used to control various grasses. Fusion is a premix of both fluazifop at 2 lbs and fenoxaprop 0.56 lbs ai per gallon.  Should not be applied after boll set.  Livestock should not be grazed or treated areas should not be used as forage or hay.

    3.      Fenoxaprop (Fusion): Fusion is a premix containing both fluazifop (2) and fenoxaprop (0.56).  It has a 24-hr REI and Caution is the signal word.  It is used to control grasses.  Used as a burndown the previous fall before planting or in the spring prior to planting.  It is applied at the rate of 8 to 12 oz or 0.16 to 0.24 lbs ai per acre. Cost ranges from $9.38 to $14.06 per acre per application.

                                                                 ii.      Cyclohexanediones

    1.      Clethodim (Select 2EC, Prism 0.94EC): has a 60-day PHI and a 24-hr REI with Warning as the signal word.  Select is applied at the rate of 6 to 16 fl.oz. Prism is applied at the rate of 13-34 fl.oz. This product is an over the top applied herbicide used to control crabgrass, fall panicum, foxtail, goosegrass, seedling and rhizome Johnsongrass, and broadleaf signalgrass.  Treated fields or treated forage or hay should not be fed to livestock.

    2.      Sethoxydim (Poast (1.5), Poast Plus (1)):  has a 40-day PHI.  It has a 12-hr REI with Caution as the signal word.  Both are applied at the formulation rate of 2.5 to 7.5 pints with 0.3125 to 0.9375 lbs ai when using Poast Plus and 0.468 to 1.41 lbs ai when using Poast formulation.  Cost ranges from $21.53 to 64.59 for the Poast formulation and $16.25 to $48.75 for the Poast Plus formulation. These products are used to control grasses.  No livestock grazing or feeding in treated areas.  Not applied to grass under stress.

    IV)              Pigment Inhibitors

    a.       DOXP Synthesis

                                                                   i.      Isoxazolidinones

    1.      Clomazone (Command 3ME): has a 65-day PHI. This product has a 12-hr REI and Caution as the signal word.  It is applied at the rate ranges from 1.33 to 3.33 pints or 0.5 to 1.25 lbs ai per acre per season.  Used as a preemergent herbicide and should not be applied more than once per season.  Do not graze or harvest for food or feed cover crops planted less than 9 months after a Command 3ME treatment. Possible off-site movement of this product.  Diuron is not recommended at planting and should not be used with this product due to possible crop injury.  Used to suppress some annual grasses and control of various broadleaf weeds.

                                                                 ii.      Pyridazinones

    1.      Noraflurazon (Zorial Rapid): has no PHI listed on the label.  It has Caution as the signal word and a 12-hr REI. It is applied at the rate of 1.25 to 2.5 lbs formulation per acre or 1-2 lbs ai per acre.  Cost ranges from $18.38 to 36.75 per acre per application. Used to control crabgrass, fall panicum, foxtail, goosegrass, lambsquarter, prickly sida, common ragweed, velvet leaf and several others.

    V)                Seedling growth regulators

    a.       Shoot inhibitor

                                                                   i.      Chloracetamides

    1.      S-metolachlor (Cinch 7.64, Dual II Magnum 7.62): no PHI is listed on the label.  The products have a 24-hr REI and Caution as the signal word. Cinch is applied at the rate of 0.8 to 1 pint or 0.76to 0.955 lbs ai per acre per application.  Dual is applied at the rate of 0.5 to 1.33 pints or 0.47 to 1.26 lbs ai per acre per application.  Generally applied as a preemergent or burndown product.  Used to control yellow nutsedge and various annual weeds.

    2.      Metolachlor (Mee-Too-Alachlor 8): No PHI listed. It may not be applied after bloom. It has a 24-hr REI with Caution as the signal word.  It is applied at rate of 0.75 to 1.33 pints or 0.75 to 1.33 lbs ai per acre per application.  Livestock should not be grazed of fed forage of treated areas.

                                                                 ii.      Oxyacetamides

    b.      Microtubule assembly inhibitor

                                                                   i.      Dinitroanilines

    1.      Pendimethalin (Prowl 3.3, 3.8): has a 60-day PHI.  Has a 24-hr REI and Caution as the signal word.  The 3.3 EC formulation is applied at the rate of 1.8 to 4.8 pints or 0.74 to 1.98 lbs ai per acre.  Cost ranges from $4.70 to 12.54 per acre.

    2.      Trifluralin (Treflan):  has a 90-day PHI with Caution as the signal word and a 12-hr REI. Applied at the rate ranging from 1 to 2.5 pints or $2.14 to 5.35 per acre. Used to provide control of crabgrass, fall panicum, foxtail, goosegrass, seedling Johnsongrass, Palmer pigweed, smooth pigweed, and broadleaf signalgrass.

    VI)              Growth regulators

    a.       Synthetic auxins

                                                                   i.      Benzoic

    1.      Dicamba (Clarity 4SL, Banvel 4EC):  applied at the rate of 8 fl.oz. or 0.25 lbs ai per acre per application.  For optimum control must have had one-inch of rain prior to application.  Used to control various broadleaf weeds.  Used in no-tillage systems and as a burndown.   Cost is $5.84 per acre per application.  Must wait 21 days after application for planting.

    VII)           Photosynthesis inhibitors

    a.       Photosystem II-mobiles

                                                                   i.      Triazines

    1.      Prometryn (Caparol, Cotton-Pro 4):  no PHI is listed on the label.  This product has a 12-hr REI and Caution as the signal word.  The Caparol formulation applied rate range of 2.4 to 4.8 pints or 1.2 to 2.4 lbs ai per acre per application.  Cost ranges form $9.27 to 18.54 per acre.  This product is used as s burndown, pre-emergent herbicide or lay-by.  Lower rates (2.4-3.2 pints) of the formulation are used in lay-by applications.  

                                                                 ii.      Phenylureas

    1.      Diuron (Karmex, Direx 80DF, 4L): has Caution as the signal word and a 12-hr REI.  Applied at the rate of 0.2 to 0.4 lbs ai per acre per application.  Cost ranges from $0.95 to $1.88 for 4L or $2.68 to $4.00 per acre per application. Do not allow livestock to feed on treated areas.

    2.      Diuron and thiadiazuron (Ginstar): This product has Danger as the signal word and a 24-hr REI.  It is a premix of thiadiazuron (1) and diuron (0.5). Applied at the rate of 6.4 to 16 floz or 0.07 to 0.19 lbs ai per acre per application.  Used as a harvest aid.   

    3.      Flumeturon (Cotoran 4L, 80WP):  has a 60-day PHI.  It has a 24-hr REI and Caution is listed as the signal word.  It is applied at the rate of 1-2 lbs ai per acre per application with no more than three applications per season.  This product should not be applied with systemic insecticides.  Treated areas should not be fed as forage to livestock and livestock should not be grazed in treated areas.

    4.      Thidiazuron (Thidiauron 4SC, 50WSB):  no PHI is listed on the lable.  It has a 24-REI and Caution as the signal word.  WSB formulation is applied at the rate of 0.1 to 0.2 lbs ai per acre. 

    b.      Photosystem II-non-mobiles

                                                                   i.      Nitriles

    1.      Bromoxynil (Buctril 4EC): has a 75-day PHI and a 24-hr REI with Warning as the signal word.  It is applied at the rate of 0.75 to 1 pint or 0.38 to 0.5 lbs ai per acre.  It may only be applied to BXN varieties only. Excellent for DSMA resistant cocklebur.  No more than two applications before cotton reaches 12 inches tall and one application allowed after 12 inches tall.  No more than 3 pints per season.  Weak control of pigweed, spurge, buffalobur, common ragweed, hemp sesbania, kochia, nightshade spp., Palmer amaranth, prickly sida, sicklepod and several others. Cost ranges from $10.73 to 14.30 per acre per application.  The yield potential, disease resistance, and agronomic fitness of some BXN cotton varieties has not been thoroughly determined in research conducted by the University of Tennessee.

    VIII)         Unclassified or unknown

    a.       Organoarsenical

                                                                   i.      MSMA (MSMA 6, 6.6 Plus): Not to applied after first bloom.  Product has Caution as the signal word and has a 12-hr REI.  Applied at the formulation rate range of 16 to 42.6 fl.oz. or 0.75 to 2 lbs ai per acre per treatment.  Cost ranges from $2.20 to 5.86 per acre per application.  Often mixed with other products to provide optimum weed control.  Often mixed with Caparol, Cotton-Pro, Susprend, Cobra, Valor, or Layby-Pro. 

                                                                 ii.      DSMA (DSMA 3.6, 7.2): has a 60-day PHI.  Product should not be applied after first bloom.  The product has Caution as the signal word and a 12-hr REI.  Livestock should not be fed foliage or allowed to grazed in treated areas.  Applied at the rate of 128 fl oz or 3.6 lbs ai per acre.  Cost of $7.10 per acre for the 3.6 EC formulation or $5.80 for the 7.2EC formulation.  Some cockleburs may be resistant to DSMA.  Grain sorghum should not be planted the following year.

    Common Weeds Found in Tennessee Cotton Production

    Major weeds problems include:
    Johnsongrass (rhizome), cocklebur, sicklepod (occasionally), teaweed /prickly sida, glyphosate resistant marestail (Conyza canadensis) and velvetleaf (wild cotton) are some of the major weeds found in cotton production in Tennessee.  Listed below are weeds commonly found in Tennessee’s cotton production.  Table 6 lists the response of some problem weeds to herbicide application.  Other weeds commonly observed includeBarnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli), Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), Bristly foxtail (Setaria verticillata), Bristly starbur (Acanthospermum hispidum), Broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), Buffalobur (solanum rostratum), Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Crowfootgrass (Dactyloctenium aegyptium), Devil’s claw (Proboscidea louisianica), Entireleaf morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula), Fall panicum (Panicum dichtomiflorum), Field sandbur (Cenchrus incertus), Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum), Florida pusley (Richardia scabra), Giant foxtail (Setaria faberi), Goosegrass (Eleucine indica), Green foxtail (Setaria viridis), Itchgrass (Rottboellia exaltata), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), Junglerice (Echinochloa colonum), Lambsquarter (Chenopodium spp.), Large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), Marestail / horseweed (Conyza canadensis), Nutsedge (Cyperus spp.), Palmer pigweed (Amaranthus spp.), Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum), Pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa), Prickly sida (Sida spinosa), Quackgrass (Agrpyron repens), Red rice (Oryza sativa), Rhizome johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Seedling johnosongrass (Sorghum halepense), Shattercane (Sorghum bicolor), Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), Smartweed (Polygonum spp.), Smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum), Smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), Spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata), Springletop (Leptochloa filiformis), Spurred anoda (Anoda cristata), Tall morningglory (Ipomoea pupurea), Velvetleaf or wild cotton (Abutilon theophrasti), Volunteer barley (Hordeum vulgare), Volunteer wheat (Triticum aestivum), Volunteer oats (Avena sativa), Volunteer rye (Secale cereale), Wild oat (Avena fatua), Witchgrass (Panicum capillare), Wild proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), Wirestem muhly (Muhlenbergia frondosa), Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa), and Yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens).

    Table 6.  Expected Weed Response to Cotton Herbicides

    Weed

                       

    MSMA

    With

                     

    Trifluralin

    PENDIMETHALIN

    FLUMETURON

    Flumeturon

    +

    Clomazone

    S-METOLACHLOR

    NORFLURAZON

    DSMA

    or

    MSMA

    CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL

    PROMETRYN

    DIURON

    FLUMETURON

    PROMETRYN

     +

    TRIFLOXYSULFURON

    LACTOFEN

    FLUMIOXAZIN

    LINURON

    +

    DIURON

    GLYPHOSATE

    TRIFLOXYSULFURON-SODIUM

    GLUFOSINATE

    PYRITHIOBAC-sodium

    CLETHODIM

    QUIZOFOP-P-ETHYL

    FLUAZIFOP-P-ButyL

    FENOXAPROP-P-ETHYL

    +

    Fluazifop-P-butyl

    SETHOXYDIM

    PP

    I

    PPI/

    PRE

    PRE

    PRE

    PRE

    PRE

    EPD

    LPD

    LPD

    LPD

    EPD

    LPD

    LPD

    LPD

    LPD

    OT

    /LPD

    OT

    OT

    OT

    OT

    OT

    OT

    OT

    OT

    Crabgrass

    9

    9

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    0

    8

    9

    8

    8

    8

    8

    9

    9

    2

    6

    0

    9

    8

    8

    9

    9

    Fall Panicum

    9

    9

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    0

    8

    9

    8

    8

    8

    8

    9

    9

    0

    6

    0

    9

    8

    8

    9

    9

    Foxtail

    9

    9

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    0

    8

    9

    8

    8

    8

    8

    9

    9

    0

    7

    0

    9

    8

    8

    9

    9

    Goosegrass

    9

    9

    8

    8

    8

    8

    7

    0

    8

    9

    8

    8

    8

    8

    9

    9

    0

    6

    0

    9

    8

    8

    9

    9

    Seedling Johnsongrass

    9

    8

    6

    6

    8

    7

    8

    0

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    9

    10

    5

    7

    0

    9

    9

    9

    9

    9

    Rhizome

    Johnsongrass

    2

    2

    0

    1

    0

    4

    5

    0

    3

    4

    3

    3

    3

    3

    4

    9

    0

    2

    0

    9

    9

    9

    9

    6

    Broadleaf signalgrass

    8

    8

    7

    8

    8

    7

    7

    0

    7

    8

    7

    7

    8

    8

    8

    9

    --

    6

    0

    9

    8

    8

    9

    9

    Yellow Nutsedge

    0

    0

    0

    1

    8

    6

    7

    0

    7

    7

    7

    7

    7

    7

    7

    7

    9

    2

    01

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Cocklebur

    1

    1

    8

    8

    1

    5

    8

    6

    9

    9

    8

    9

    8

    8

    8

    10

    9

    8

    8

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Jimsonweed

    0

    0

    8

    8

    1

    5

    8

    --

    9

    9

    8

    9

    8

    8

    8

    8

    0

    8

    8

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Lambsquarter

    7

    7

    9

    9

    7

    8

    7

    8

    9

    9

    8

    9

    7

    7

    7

    8

    --

    --

    --

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Morningglory Entireleaf/Ivy

    5

    5

    7

    7

    0

    0

    6

    8

    6

    8

    8

    6

    9

    9

    8

    8

    9

    9

    8

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Morningglory pitted

    7

    7

    8

    8

    0

    6

    6

    8

    9

    9

    9

    9

    9

    9

    8

    7

    9

    9

    7

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Morningglory tall

    4

    4

    6

    6

    0

    0

    5

    8

    7

    8

    8

    7

    9

    9

    --

    8

    9

    9

    3

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Pigweed, Palmer

    9

    8/6

    5

    5

    6

    6

    4

    7

    8

    4

    5

    8

    8

    8

    8

    9

    2

    6

    7

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Pigweed, smooth

    9

    8

    9

    9

    8

    7

    6

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    9

    9

    8

    8

    9

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Prickly Sida

    0

    0

    6

    8

    0

    8

    4

    6

    4

    6

    7

    4

    6

    4

    8

    6

    0

    3

    2

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Common ragweed

    0

    0

    9

    9

    0

    8

    8

    --

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    --

    --

    --

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Sicklepod

    0

    0

    8

    8

    2

    1

    6

    0

    7

    7

    8

    7

    6

    6

    8

    8

    9

    8

    3

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Smartweed

    0

    0

    8

    8

    1

    6

    6

    --

    8

    8

    7

    8

    8

    8

    8

    8

    --

    8

    7

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Spotted Spurge

    0

    0

    7

    7

    6

    7

    5

    6

    7

    7

    7

    7

    8

    7

    7

    9

    --

    --

    3

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Spurred Anoda

    0

    0

    4

    8

    0

    7

    2

    --

    4

    5

    3

    4

    5

    4

    8

    7

    5

    --

    8

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Velvetleaf

    0

    3

    5

    9

    0

    8

    4

    10

    6

    5

    5

    6

    5

    5

    7

    7

    --

    6

    9

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Volunteer RR soybeans

    0

    0

    9

    9

    0

    1

    4

    2

    7

    8

    6

    7

    3

    4

    6

    0

    8

    9

    6

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Cotton Tolerance

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    2

    1

    2

    3

    3

    2

    0**

    2

    0LT

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    KEY TO RESPONSE RATINGS: 0 = no control, 10 = 100% control, -- = no data available.

    PPI = Pre-plant incorporated, PRE=preemergent, EPD=early post directed.  LPD=late post directed.

    ** variety must be Roundup Ready.

    LT = Liberty Link tolerant


    Harvest Aids:

    Harvest aids are used to defoliate cotton and open bolls, which greatly aids in the speed of harvest.  Chemical defoliation is the application of materials to cotton plants to encourage or force the plant to drop leaves, and to allow timely harvest of the crop.  There are various products used to defoliate cotton and are listed below.  The defoliation process can be tricky and must be done to allow proper leaf drop.  Improper timing may cause the leaf to be retained on the plant resulting in a greater amount of trash, therefore causing less return when marketing the final product.  To determine proper application timing, scouting the field and taking samples of developed bolls may be required.  Depending on environmental conditions and season various products may be used to aid in harvest. 

    Depending on environmental conditions different products as well as different rates are recommened for use to provide optimum boll opening and defoliation.  For defoilation only (cutout), then products suchas DEF 6, Folex, Harvade & crop oil concentrate (COC), Finish or CottonQuik are used.  If producers expect possible regrowth due to warm weather, thidiazuron, DEF/Folex with thidiazuron, Harvade with COC and thidiazuron, Finish and thidiazuron, or CottonQuik and thidiazuron may be used.  Other combinations are used for defoliation and boll opening.

    There are several harvest aids available to producers.  These include products containing the active ingredients, ethephon, cyclanilide, mepiquat pentaborate, thiadiazuron and diruon, dimethipin with thidiazuron, paraquat, sodium chlorate, carfetrazone ethyl, and thiadazuron alone.  Table 6 lists labeled rates of these products.

    For the past several years it is estimated that approximately 120 gallons of dimethipin (Harvade) have been used in cotton production annually.  Approximately 95% of the cotton grown in Tennessee receives some type of defoliant treatment.


    Table 7 Estimated Herbicide and Harvest Aid Use in 2004 Cotton Production1.

    Active Ingredient

    Tradename

    Estimated %

    acreage treated

    Carfentrazone ethyl

    Aim, EC, EW

    20

    Quizalofop

    Assure II

    <1

    Dacamba

    Banvel 4EC

    <1

    Clarity

    85

    Bromoxynil

    Butril

    trace

    Prometryn

    Caparol

    35

    S-metolachlor

    Cinch

    1

    Dual II Magnum

    10

    Lactofen

    Cobra

    <1

    Clomazone

    Command

    5

    Tributyl-phosphorotrithioate

    Def 6

    40

    Diuron

    Direx

    80

    Phenyl-thiadiazolylurea

    Dropp 50

    2

    Dropp SC

    <1

    Trifloxysulfuron-sodium

    Envoke

    3

    Ethephon**

    Ethephon

    90

    Finish Pro

    50

    Glyphosate

    Roundup, various formulations

    75

    Thidiazuron / Diuron

    Ginstar

    30

    Paraquat

    Gramoxone Max

    25

    Dimethipin

    Harvade

    <1

    Glufosinate

    Ignite

    15

    Diuron

    Karmex

    5

    Monosodium methanearsonate

    MSMA

    10

    Mepiquat pentaborate

    Penita

    15

    Pendimenthalin

    Prowl

    5

    Pendimethalin generic

    10

    Clethodim

    Select

    2

    Pyrithiobac sodium

    Staple

    15

    Flumeturon

    Cotoran

    39

    Meturon

    <1

    Flumioxazin

    Valor

    5

    Trifluralin

    Treflan

    <1

    Proimetryn / Trifloxysulfuron-sodium

    Susprend

    15

    OTHERS

    Various

    <2

         

    1Estimates of percent 2004 acreage treated was made by Chism Crain, Assistant Professor, Plant Sciences, Extension Service, University of Tennessee.

    ** Multiple applications of this product are often made.

     

    Diseases

    There are several diseases that plague cotton from year to year.  Most of these are seedling diseases.  Seedling diseases cause an estimated average annual yield loss of 12.5% and are usually the major disease problems in cotton production in Tennessee.  Several soilborne fungi are responsible; however, cultural and environmental factors that delay seed germination and seedling growth make the problem more severe.  The pathogens that are most commonly found are fungi, which belong to the genera Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, and Phoma.  Most commonly, these may be controlled by using fungicide seed treatments or in-furrow fungicide applications. Table 9 provides a disease loss estimate given for cotton production during 2004.

    Fungicide use in Tennessee cotton production:

    There several fungicides are used in cotton production.  They may be available in various formulations such as a granular or spray and are usually applied in-furrow or directly to the seed.  Cotton fungicides may also be packaged as a pre-mixture of two active ingredients to provide a broad spectrum of disease control or with an insecticide.  Most commonly producers apply fungicides with an insecticide soil treatment.  Some fungicides are available to producers and fungicide/insecticide combination such as Terraclor Super-X-Di-Syston.  Listed below includes various products that were available to Tennessee cotton producers during 2004.  Table 8 lists products that were available for use in cotton disease control, with formulation rates, PHIs, REIs and signal words.  Table 10 lists several products that were commonly used for seed treatments in 2004 cotton production.

    Fungicides, in-furrow treatments:

    In-furrow fungicide and insecticide combinations

    Fungicide hopper-box dusts and slurries:


    Table 8.  Products available for use in cotton disease control, with formulation rates, PHI, REI and signal word.

    Tradename

    Active Ingredient

    PHI

    REI

    SW

    Formulation Rate

    Dithane F45

    Mancozeb (4)

    45-D

    24-hr

    C

    4.8 – 9.6 oz /100 lb seed

    Dithane M45

    Mancozeb (80%)

    45-D

    24-hr

    C

    3-6 oz / 100lbs

    Quadris Flowable

    Azoxystrobin (2.08)

    NL**

    4-hr

    C

    17.42 – 34.84 floz/acre

    Ridomil Gold EC

    Mefenoxam (4)

    NL

    48-hr

    C

    1-2 fl oz/acre

    Ridomil Gold PC GR

    Mefenoxam (0.5%)

    PCNB (10%)

    NL

    48-hr

    W

    7 – 10 lbs/acre

    Ridomil Gold GR

    Mefenoxam (2.5%)

    NL

    48-hrs

    C

    1.25 -2.5 lbs/acre

    Iprodione

    Iprodione (4)

    NL

    24-hr

    C

    3.2 - 8.7fl.oz./acre

    Rovral

    Iprodione (50%)

    NL

    24-hr

    C

    3.2 – 8.7 oz./acre

    Rovral 4 Flowable

    Iprodione (4)

    NL

    24-hr

    C

    3.2 – 8.7 fl oz./acre

    System 3 Seed Treatment

    PCNB (16.67%), metalaxyl (4.25%), Bacillus subtilis

    NL

    12-hr

    C

    12 oz / 100 lbs seed

    Terraclor 15G

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (15%)

    NL

    12-hr

    C

    5-10 lbs/acre

    Terraclor 75% WP

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (75%)

    NL

    12-hr

    C

    1.3 – 2.75 lbs/acre

    Terraclor 2lb

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (2 lb)

    NL

    12-hr

    W

    3 - 6 pints/acre

    Terraclor Super X

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (2lb)+

    Etridiazole (0.5lb)

    NL

    12-hr

    D

    3-6 pints/acre

    Terraclor Super X 18G

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (15%)+

    Etridiazole (3.8%)

    NL

    12-hr

    C

    5.5 – 10 lbs/acre

    Terraclor Plus Disyston*

    PCNB (6.5%)

    Disulfoton (6.5%)

    NL

    48

    D

    12-15 lbs/acre

    Terraclor Super X Plus Disyston EC*

    PCNB (1.5lbs)

    Etridiazole (0.4lbs)

    Disulfoton (1.5 lbs)

    NL

    48-hr

    D

    64 - 88fl.oz/acre

    Terraclor Super X Plus Disyston G*

    PCNB (6.5%)

    Etridiazole (1.63%)

    Disulfoton (6.5 %)

    NL

    48-hr

    D

    12-15 lbs/acre

    Terramaster 4EC

    Etridazole (4lb)

    NL

    12-hr

    D

    4 – 8 floz/acre

    Trilogy

    Neem oil (5.46)

    NL

    4-hr

    C

    2 gallons/acre

    * = Restricted use pesticide,  ** = not listed.

    Livestock should not be allowed to graze or allowed to feed on areas treated with products containing Iprodione, PCNB or disulfoton.


    Table 9.  Cotton Disease Loss Estimates from 2000 to 2004*.

    Disease

     

    Percent loss

     

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    Fusarium wilt

     

    0.01

    0.01

    0.01

    --

    0.00

    Verticillium wilt

     

    0.25

    0.10

    0.10

    0.25

    0.50

    Bacterial blight

     

    --

    --

    --

    --

    --

    Seedling disease

     

    4.00

    8.50

    20.00

    22.00

    8.00

    Ascochyta blight

     

    0.20

    2.00

    2.00

    0.20

    1.00

    Boll rots

     

    3.00

    5.00

    5.00

    2.00

    5.00

    Leaf spots

     

    0.50

    0.50

    0.30

    1.00

    1.00

    Nematodes

    Total

    1.00

    1.00

    1.5

    2.10

    2.10

    Root-knot

    NA

    0.10

    0.10

    0.10

    0.10

    Reniform

    NA

    0.90

    1.40

    2.00

    2.00

    Others

    NA

    --

    --

    --

    --

    TOTAL LOSS

               

    * Loss estimates were taken from research and extension demonstrations and general observations taken across the state by Melvin A. Newman, Extension Plant Pathologist.


    Table 10. Estimated fungicide seed treatments usage during 2004*

    Formulation

    Product

    Estimated

    Percent usage

    Granular

       

    Terraclor Super X – 18.G

    2

    Terraclor 15G

    1

    Ridomil 11G

    3

    Terraclor Super X with disyston

    Trace

       

    Sprays

       

    Terrraclor Super X + disyston

    Trace

    Ridomil Gold EC + Terraclor

    2

    Ridomil Gold EC + PCNB 2EC

    0.1

    Rovral

    1

    Terraclor Super X EC

    2

    Terraclor

    0.5

    Ridomil PC (twin pack)

    5

    Quadris

    10

       

    Hopper Box

       

    Delta Coat AD

    5

    Prevail Dust

    5

    *  Estimate is given as percent of cotton acreage using seed treatments.  Estimate given by Dr. Melvin Newman.

     

    Contacts

    Chism Craig
    Assistant Professor, Plant Sciences
    605 Airways Blvd.
    Jackson, TN   38301
    phone 731-424-1643,
    cccraig@mail.ag.utk.edu

    Darrell D. Hensley
    Assistant Extension Specialist, Entomology and Plant Pathology
    2431 Joe Johnson Drive, 205 PSB.
    Knoxville, TN  37996-4560
    phone 865-974-7958
    dhensley@utk.edu

    Hayden E. Miles
    Extension Area Specialist
    151 Everett Avenue
    Dyersburg, TN 38024-5198
    phone (731) 286-7821
    hmiles1@utk.edu

    Melvin A. Newman
    Professor, Entomology and Plant Pathology
    605 Airways Blvd.
    Jackson, TN  38301
    phone 731-425-4718
    manewman@utk.edu

    Scott D. Stewart
    Associate Professor, Entomology and Plant Pathology
    605 Airways Blvd.
    Jackson, TN  38301
    phone 731-425-4709
    sdstewart@utk.edu

     

    References

    1. Environmental Protection Agency.  2001.  A 4-year phase-out decision by EPA on Azinphos-methyl.  http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/factsheets/azm_fs.htm
    2. Gwathmey, C. O., C. E. Michaud, M. C. Smith, and J. S. Williams. 2003. Advanced variety trials. Ch. I. In Tennessee Cotton Variety Test Results in 2002. (C. O. Gwathmey, C.C. Craig, Jr., and F.L. Allen, eds.) Tenn. Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Rep. 03-04. Knoxville TN. http://www.taes.utk.edu/research/varietytrials/variety.html
    3. Hart, W.E. et al.  1996.  “Cotton Yield Performance: The Effect of Row Spacing, Tillage, and Growth Regulator.”  Tennessee Agri. Science, No. 179, pp. 18-20.
    4. Stewart, S.D. and G.L. Lentz.  2004.  2004 Cotton Insect Control Guide, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. PB387.
    5. Stewart, S. D. 2004. Beet Armyworm. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W029. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W029.pdf.
    6. Stewart, S. D. 2004. Boll worm. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W030. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W030.pdf.
    7. Stewart, S. D.  2004. Boll Weevil. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W024. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W024.pdf.
    8. Stewart, S. D. 2004. Cotton Aphid. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W028. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W028.pdf.
    9. Stewart, S. D. 2004. Cutworms. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W032. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W032.pdf.
    10. Stewart, S. D. 2004. Fall Armyworm. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W033. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W033.pdf.
    11. Stewart, S. D. 2004. Loopers. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W034. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W034.pdf.
    12. Stewart, S. D.  2004.  Tarnished Plant Bug. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W025. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W025.pdf.
    13. Stewart, S. D. 2004. Tobacco Budworm. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W031. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W031.pdf.
    14. Stewart, S. D. 2004. Spider mites. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W035. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W035.pdf.
    15. Stewart, S. D. 2004. Stinkbugs. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W027. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W027.pdf.
    16. Stewart, S. D. and L.L.Lentz.  2004.  Thrips. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W026. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W026.pdf.
    17. Stewart, S. D. 2004.  Whiteflies.  University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. W023. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/wfiles/W023.pdf.
    18. 2004. Weed Control Manual for Tennessee. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.  PB1580.
    19. Tennessee Agricultural Statistics, Farm Facts, Vol. 4, Number 21., November 5, 2004, http://www.nass.usda.gov/tn